I love Birds, I shared this album about Birds of Pakistan with my Facebook friends way back in 2012, so now i thought why not share it with all my fellow blog mates. I did not take these pictures (i wish i did) they are courtesy of the internet.
1. Chakor ( National bird of Pakistan)
The Chakor Partridge (Alectoris chukar) is a Eurasian upland gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae. It has been considered to form a superspecies complex along with the Rock Partridge, Philby’s Partridge and Przevalski’s Partridge and treated in the past as conspecific particularly with the first. This partridge has well marked black and white bars on the flanks and a black band running from the forehead across the eye and running down the head to form a necklace that encloses a white throat. The species has been introduced into many other places and feral populations have established themselves in parts of North America and New Zealand. It is the national bird of Pakistan. The Chakor is the National bird of Pakistan. In Punjab, the Chakor has been considered as a symbol of intense, and often unrequited, love. It was considered to be enamoured by the moon and said to constantly gaze at it.[Due to their pugnacious behaviour during the breeding season they are kept in some areas as fighting birds. British sportsmen in India considered the Chakor as good sport although they were not considered to be particularly good in flavour. Their fast flight and ability to fly some distance after being shot made recovery of the birds difficult without retriever dogs. During cold winters, when the higher areas are covered in snow, people in Kashmir have been known to use a technique to tire the birds out to catch them.
2. Red Avadavar – Pakistan
The Red Munia, Red Avadavat or Strawberry Finch (Amandava amandava) is a sparrow-sized bird of the Munia family. It is found in the open fields and grasslands of tropical Asia and is popular as a cage bird due to the colourful plumage of the males in their breeding season. It breeds in South Asia during the Monsoon season.
This small finch is easily identified by the rounded black tail and the bill that is red in all seasons. The rump is red and the breeding male is red on most of the upper parts except for a black eye-stripe, lower belly and wings. There are white spots on the red body and wing feathers. The non-breeding male is duller but has the red-rump while the female is duller with less of the white spotting on the feathers.
This species is found from the Indus valley of Pakistan to the plains of the Brahmaputra extending south to the peninsula of India. The are found mainly on the flat plains, mainly in places with tall grasses or crops often near water. The species has four named populations. The nominate subspecies is found in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Pakistan.
Behaviour and ecology::
This finch is usually seen in small flocks,flying with rapid wingbeats and descending into grass clumps where they are hard to observe. Pairs stay together during the breeding season.These birds produce a distinctive low single note pseep call that is often given in flight. The song is a series of low notes.Birds of a flock will preen each other, ruffling their head feathers in invitation. They feed mainly on grass seeds but will also take insects such as termites when they are available.
The Indian Roller (Coracias benghalensis), also called the Blue Jay in former times is a member of the roller family of birds. They are found in southern Asia from Iraq to Thailand and are best known for the aerobatic displays of the male during the breeding season. They are very commonly seen perched along roadside trees and wires and are commonly seen in open grassland and scrub forest habitats. It is not migratory, but undertakes some seasonal movements.
The Indian Roller is a stocky bird about 26–27 cm long and can only be confused within its range with the migratory European Roller. The breast is brownish and not blue as in the European Roller. The crown and vent are blue. The primaries are deep purplish blue with a band of pale blue. The tail is sky blue with a terminal band of Prussian blue and the central feathers are dull green. The neck and throat are purplish lilac with white shaft streaks. The bare patch around the eye is ochre in colour. The three forward toes are united at the base. Rollers have a long and compressed bill with a curved upper edge and a hooked tip. The nostril is long and exposed and there are long rictal bristles at base of the bill.
The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. Golden Eagles use their agility and speed combined with extremely powerful talons to snatch up prey including rabbits, marmots, ground squirrels and many other prey and large mammals such as fox, wild and domestic cats, mountain goats, ibex, and young deer. They will also eat carrion if prey is scarce, as well as reptiles. Birds, including large species up to the size of swans and cranes as well as ravens and greater black backed gulls have all been recorded as prey. They have even been known to attack and kill fully grown roe deer. The huge eurasian subspecies are used to hunt and kill wolves in many native communities, where their status is regarded with great mystic reverence.
Golden Eagles maintain territories that may be as large as 155 square kilometres (60 square miles). They are monogamous and may remain together for several years or possibly for life. Golden Eagles nest in high places including cliffs, trees, or human structures such as telephone poles. They build huge nests to which they may return for several breeding years. Females lay from one to four eggs, and both parents incubate them for 40 to 45 days. Typically, one or two young survive to fledge in about three months.
5. The Blue Bee Eater ::
The Blue-tailed Bee-eater, Merops philippinus is a near passerine bird in the bee-eater family Meropidae. It breeds in southeastern Asia including Pakistan. It is strongly migratory. This species is sometimes considered to be conspecific with the Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, M. persicus. This species, like other bee-eaters, is a richly-coloured, slender bird. It is predominantly green; its face has a narrow blue patch with a black eye stripe, and a yellow and brown throat; the tail is blue and the beak is black. It can reach a length of 23-26 cm, including the two elongated central tail feathers. Sexes are alike. This is a bird which breeds in sub-tropical open country, such as farmland, parks or ricefields. It is most often seen near large waterbodies. Like other bee-eaters it predominantly eats insects, especially bees, wasps and hornets, which are caught in the air by sorties from an open perch.This species probably takes bees and dragonflies in roughly equal numbers. The insect that are caught are beaten on the perch to kill and break the exoskeleton. This habit is seen in many other members of the coraciiformes order. These bee-eaters are gregarious, nesting colonially in sandy banks or open flat areas. They make a relatively long tunnel in which the 5 to 7 spherical white eggs are laid. Both the male and the female take care of the eggs. These birds also feed and roost communally. The call is similar to that of the European Bee-eater.
6. BOHEMIAN WAXWING Native : Pakistan
The Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus) is a member of the waxwing family of passerines. A sleek bird, 18–21 cm long with a pointed crest, it travels in large, nomadic groups with a strong, direct flight. It breeds in coniferous forests throughout the most northern parts of Europe, Asia and western North America.
7. The Red-billed Tropicbird Found in Arabian Sea – Pakistan also
The Red-billed Tropicbird, Phaethon aethereus, also known as the Boatswain Bird is a tropicbird, one of three closely related seabirds of tropical oceans. Red-billed Tropicbirds are striking birds, with a vivid, white body, black wing edges and eye stripe, red bill and two long, streaming tail feathers. Like some of the other pelecaniformes, tropicbirds are plunge-divers, feeding on squid and fish, well out at sea. After a dive, they bob back up to the surface, sitting momentarily, with their two tail feathers cocked in an upright position. Tropicbirds court each other with an aerial display and callings. The Red-billed Tropicbird breeds on tropical islands laying a single egg directly onto the ground or a cliff ledge. It disperses widely when not breeding and sometimes wanders far, including an amazing record from Great Britain.
Distribution and habitat::
The Red-billed Tropicbird occurs in the tropical Atlantic, eastern Pacific and Indian Oceans. The Indian Ocean race, P. a. indicus, was at one time considered a full species, the Lesser Red-billed Tropicbird from Pakistan and western India. It breeds on tropical islands laying a single egg directly onto the ground or a cliff ledge. It disperses widely when not breeding, and sometimes wanders far, including an amazing record from Great Britain. One has recently been found in eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. They feed on fish and squid, but are poor swimmers.
8. The Bar-Headed Goose ( Immigrant bird to Pakistan wetlands )
Life and habitat::
The summer habitat is high altitude lakes where the bird grazes on short grass. The species has been reported as migrating south from Siberia via the Qinghai lake region in China before its crossing of the Himalaya. The Bar-headed Goose is one of the world’s highest flying birds, having been seen at up to 10,175 m (33,382 feet). It has a slightly larger wing area for its weight than other geese, which is believed to help the goose fly at high altitudes. Studies have found that they breathe more efficiently under low oxygen conditions and are able to reduce heat loss.The haemoglobin of their blood has a higher oxygen affinity than that of other geese. The Bar-headed Goose migrates over the Himalayas to spend the winter in parts of India (from Assam to as far south as Tamil Nadu, Northern Burma and the wetlands of Pakistan. The winter habitat of the Bar-headed Goose is cultivated fields, where it feeds on barley, rice and wheat, and may damage crops. The bird can fly the 1000-mile migration route in just one day as it is able to fly in the jet stream. Birds from Kyrgyzstan have been noted to stopover in western Tibet and southern Tajikistan for 20 to 30 days before migrating further south. Some birds may show high wintering site fidelity. The bird is pale grey and is easily distinguished from any of the other grey geese of the genus Anser by the black bars on its head. It is also much paler than the other geese in this genus. In flight, its call is a typical goose honking. The adult is 71–76 cm (28-30 in) and weighs 1.87-3.2 kg (4-7 lbs).
9. The Emerald Dove ( Pakistan )
The Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica) is a pigeon which is a widespread resident breeding bird in tropical southern Asia from Pakistan to Sri Lanka and east to Indonesia and northern and eastern Australia. The dove is also known by the names of Green Dove and Green-winged pigeon. It has a number of subspecies, with three existing in Australia, longirostris from the Kimberly, Western Australia to Cape York Peninsula, chrysochlora from Cape York Peninsula to southern New South Wales as well as Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island, and natalis from Christmas Island.
Its flight is fast and direct, with the regular beats and an occasional sharp flick of the wings which are characteristic of pigeons in general. It often flies low between the patches of dense forest it prefers, but when disturbed will frequently walk away rather than fly. They are particularly good weavers when flying through forests. When flying they expose a buff underwing and a chestnut colour of their flight feathers. Emerald Dove is a stocky, medium-sized pigeon, typically 23 to 28 centimetres (10 to 11.2 inches) in length. The back and wings are bright emerald green. The flight feathers and tail are blackish, and broad black and white bars show on the lower back in flight. The head and underparts are dark vinous pink (in chrysochlora, more brown in longirostris), fading to greyish on the lower belly. The eyes are dark brown, the bill bright red and legs and feet rufous. Female at Memphis Zoo, USAThe male has a white patch on the edge of the shoulders and a grey crown, which the female lacks. Females will tend to have a browner complexion with a grey mark on the shoulder. Immature birds resemble females but have brown scallops on their body and wing plumage. Emerald doves usually occur singly, pairs or in small groups. They are quite terrestrial, often searching for fallen fruit on the ground and spending little time in trees except when roosting. They eat seeds and fruits of a wide variety of plants and are generally tame and approachable. The call is a low soft moaning cooing consisting of about six to seven coos starting quietly and rising. They also call a nasal “hoo-hoo-hoon”. Males perform a bobbing dance during courtship.
10. Pakistan National Bird ( CHAKOR )
The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) is a Eurasian upland game bird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. Its native range in Asia from Pakistan and Kashmir, India and Afghanistan. It is closely related and similar to its western equivalent, the Red-legged Partridge, Alectoris rufa. The Chukar is a rotund 32-35 cm long bird, with a light brown back, grey breast, and buff belly. The face is white with a black gorget. It has rufous-streaked flanks and red legs. When disturbed, it prefers to run rather than fly, but if necessary it flies a short distance on rounded wings. Chukar prefer rocky, steep, and open hillsides. The Chukar is a resident breeder in dry, open, and often hilly country. In the wild, Chukar travel in groups of 5-40 birds called coveys. It nests in a scantily lined ground scrape laying 8 to 20 eggs. Chukars will take a wide variety of seeds and some insects as food. When in captivity, they will lay 1 egg per day throughout the breeding season if the eggs are collected daily. For hunters, Chakur is a very challneging bird becuase of its surgical upward flights and sudden disappearances in the bushes.
11. The Roseringed Parakeet ( Pakistan ) Islamabad’s Territorial Bird
The Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri), also known as the Ringnecked Parakeet, is a gregarious tropical parakeet species that is popular as a pet.
Rose-ringed Parakeets usually feed on buds, fruits, vegetables, nuts, berries and seeds. Wild flocks also fly several miles to forage in farmlands and orchards causing extensive damage. They have been found to feed extensively on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) during winter in South Asia.They also breed during winter unlike most other South Asian birds. Rose-ringed Parakeets measure on average 40 cm (16 inches) long including the tail feathers. Its average single wing length is about 15–17.5 cm (6-7 inches). The tail accounts for a large portion of their total length. African ssp. are slender in bodies but usually display longer tail feathers (more so in mature male specimens) than Asian ssp. which are typically stockier in bodies. The former usually display darker (brownish-red) upper mandibles while the latter always display bright-red upper-mandibles.
Cheer pheasants (Catreus wallichi) are an endangered species found in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Efforts to breed and re-introduce them have so far been largely unsuccessful. Protection of cheer pheasants’ remaining population and conservation of their natural habitat is therefore necessary to ensure their continued existence. Initial surveys have indicated the presence of a viable population in very few areas. One of these is Lawasi, which has a considerable population of the cheer pheasant, but needs immediate protection.
Other Names: Wallich’s Pheasant
Range: The Himalayas from Afganistan to Nepal.
Habitat: Highland forests and scrublands from 4,000 to 10,000 Feet.
Brief Description: Drab in comparison to other pheasant species, both sexes share the long gray crests. Plumage overall buffy and gray, with black barring; the tail is long and barred buff, gray and brown. Female very similar to the male; lacking spurs, facial skin smaller, duller in plumage and slightly smaller in overall size.
Status in Wild: Endangered;
Interesting Facts: Despite similarities to the genus Syrmaticus, the Cheer Pheasant is the sole member of the genus Catreus. Re-introductions of captive bred birds underway in Pakistan. Cheer pheasants have been declining in the wild in their natural range for many years. They are extirpated from much of their local range. The World Pheasant Association has long worked with W.P.A. Pakistan to keep this species alive there, and many aviculturists in Europe who keep this species have donated eggs and young birds for return to Pakistan over many years.
13. The Coppersmith Barbet ( Pakistan )
The Coppersmith Barbet, Crimson-breasted Barbet or Coppersmith (Megalaima haemacephala), is a bird with crimson forehead and throat which is best known for its metronomic call that has been likened to a coppersmith striking metal with a hammer. It is a resident found in South Asia and parts of Southeast Asia. Like other barbets, they chisel out a hole inside a tree to build their nest. They are mainly fruit eating but will take sometimes insects, especially winged termites.
14. WESTERN TRAGOPAN ( A famous pheasant ) Pakistan – Very rare and endangered specie
The most elusive of Pakistan’s pheasants is the Western tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus). Although they were once common in the Western Himalayas, only a small population now survives in Keyal and Palas valleys, in Indus Kohistan, and in Azad Kashmir. The species is classified as threatened with extinction.
The male is very dark, grey and black with numerous white spots, each spot bordered with black and deep crimson patches on the sides and back of the neck. The throat is bare with blue skin while the bare facial skin is red. They have a small black occipital crest. Females have pale brownish grey upper parts finely vermiculated and spotted with black, and most of the feathers have black patches and central white streaks. Immature males resemble females, but are larger in size with longer legs and variable amount of black on head and red on neck.Males weigh 1800–2200 g and females 1300–1400 g. The males vary in length from 55–60 cm while the females are 48–50 cm.
Five populations are known from Kohistan, Kaghan valley, Kishtwar, Chamba, Kulu and an area east of the Sutlej river. They are found from an altitude of 1750 m to 3600 m, going up higher in summer. Their preferred habitat is the dense understorey of temperate, subalpine and broad-leaved forest.
It inhabits upper temperate forests between 2400 and 3600 m in summer, and in winter, dense coniferous and broad-leaved forests between 2000 to 2800 m elevations. The Western Tragopan is mostly arboreal but feeds on the ground. They mostly feed on leaves, shoots, seeds, but also consume insects and other invertebrates. Like most of the pheasants, they roost on trees singly or in pairs except during nesting.The males during display show the throat inflated into lappets that appear purple with pink margins. They also display blue horns with a fancied resemblance to those of the Greek mythological god Pan, whence the name Tragopan (Tragos goat + Pan). During the display they call and the song is a loud two-note ringing wou-weee which is repeated every second for long periods. The breeding season is May-June. They build their nests in low tree hollows.
The Western Tragopan is considered as the rarest of all living pheasants. Their range is very restricted. In Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, this bird is locally called Jujurana which means King of Birds.Population of C is threatened by several anthropogenic factors throughout its range. The world population is estimated at less than 5000 individuals, including a captive population of less than five at the moment. Representing the endemic bird area D02 of Western Himalaya, the Western Tragopan has been described as a range-restricted species.
15. Salty Headed Parakeet ( Threatened Specie of Parrot – Himalya / Pakistan )
The Slaty-headed Parakeet (Psittacula himalayana) is the only psittacid species to exhibit altitudinal migration. The species’ range extends from the foothills of the Western Himalayas in India and Pakistan and up to South Tibet. They descend to the valleys in winter, approximately during the last week of October.
16. THE BLUE PEAFOWL ( South Asia including Pakistan )
The Indian Peafowl or Blue Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) is a large and brightly coloured pheasant native to South Asia, but introduced and semi-feral in many other parts of the world. The male, peacock, is predominantly blue with a fan-like crest of spatula-tipped wire-like feathers and is best known for the long train made up of elongated upper-tail covert feathers which bear colourful eyespots. These stiff and elongated feathers are raised into a fan and quivered in a display during courtship. The female lacks the train, has a greenish lower neck and has a duller brown plumage. They are found mainly on the ground in open forest or cultivation where they forage for berries, grains but will also prey on snakes, lizards, and small rodents. Their loud calls make them easy to detect, and in forest areas, often indicate the presence of a predator such as a tiger.
Distribution and habitat::
The Blue Peafowl is a resident breeder across the Indian subcontinent and is found in the drier lowland areas of Sri Lanka. In South Asia, it is found mainly below an altitude of 1800 m and in rare cases seen at about 2000m. It is found in moist and dry-deciduous forests, but can adapt to live in cultivated regions and around human habitations and is usually found where water is available. In many parts of northern India, they are protected by religious sentiment and will forage around villages and towns for scraps. Some have suggested that the peacock was introduced into Europe by Alexander the Great, while others suggest that the bird had reached Athens by 450 BC and may have been introduced even earlier. It has since been introduced in many other parts of the world and has become feral in some areas.
17. THE PLUM HEADED PARAKEET ( PAKISTAN )
The Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) is a parrot which is a resident breeder in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. It is endemic to the Indian subcontinent.
Female feeding in Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, India.The Plum-headed Parakeet is a mainly green parrot, 33 cm long with a tail up to 22 cm. The male’s head is red, becoming purple-blue on the back of the crown, nape and cheeks. There is a narrow black neck collar and a black chin stripe. There is a red shoulder patch and the rump and tail are bluish-green, the latter tipped white. The upper mandible is orangish-yellow, and the lower mandible is dark. The female has a grey head, corn-yellow upper-mandible and lacks the black neck collar, chin stripe and red shoulder patch. Immature birds have a green head and both mandibles are yellowish. The different head colour and the white tip to the tail distinguish this species from the similar Blossom-headed Parakeet (Psittacula roseata).
The Plum-headed Parakeet is a gregarious and noisy species with range of raucous calls. The usual flight and contact call is oink? repeated now and then. It undergoes local movements, driven mainly by the availability of the fruit and blossoms which make up its diet. It nests in holes in trees, laying 4-6 white eggs.
The Plum-headed Parakeet is a bird of forest and open woodland. Though this species is not exploited as heavily as the sympatric Alexandrine Parakeet the trade takes its toll on local populations across the range. Population is reduced in urban areas and heavily inhabited zones.
18. THE GREAT BARBET
The Great Barbet, Megalaima virens, is an Asian barbet. Barbets are a group of near passerine birds with a worldwide tropical distribution. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. The Great Barbet is a resident breeder in the hills from Pakistan east to southern China and Laos. It is a species of broadleaf evergreen woodlands at 600-2,565 m altitude. It nests in a tree hole. This is the largest barbet at 32–33 cm length and 210 g weight. It is a plump bird, with a short neck, large head and short tail. The adult has a blue head, large yellow bill, brown back and breast, green-streaked yellow belly and red vent. The rest of the plumage is green. Both sexes and immature birds are similar.
19. GREEN PIGEON
The Pompadour Green Pigeon (Treron pompadora), also known as the Grey-fronted Green Pigeon, is a pigeon in the green pigeon genus Treron.
Distribution and habitat::
It is a widespread, resident breeding bird in tropical southern Asia from Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka east to the Philippines and the Moluccas. In India, they are found as disjunct populations in the Western Ghats, some parts of the Eastern Ghats, Northeastern India and in the Andaman Islands. It is a common species in rainforest and similar dense wet woodlands.
The Pompadour Green Pigeon usually occurs singly or in small groups. Its flight is fast and direct, with the regular beats and an occasional sharp flick of the wings that are characteristic of pigeons in general. It eats the seeds and fruits of a wide variety of plants. It builds a stick nest in a tree and lays two white eggs.
20. THE WHITE THROATED KING FISHER
The White-throated Kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis) also known as the White-breasted Kingfisher or Smyrna Kingfisher, is a tree kingfisher, widely distributed in Eurasia from Bulgaria, Turkey, east through South Asia ( PAKISTAN ) to the Philippines. This kingfisher is a resident over much of its range, although some populations may make short distance movements. It can often be found well away from water where it feeds on a wide range of prey that includes small reptiles, amphibians, crabs, small rodents and even birds. During the breeding season they call loudly in the mornings from prominent perches including the tops of buildings in urban areas or on wires. White-throated Kingfisher is a common species of a variety of habitats, mostly open country in the plains (but has been seen at 7500 ft in the Himalayas) with trees, wires or other perches. The range of the species is expanding.
The White-throated Kingfisher begins breeding at the onset of the Monsoons. Males perch on prominent high posts in their territory an call in the early morning. The tail may be flicked now and in its courtship display the wings are stiffly flicked open for a second or two exposing the white wing mirrors. They also raise their bill high and display the white throat and front. The female in invitation makes a rapid and prolonged kit-kit-kit… call. The nest is a tunnel (50 cms long, but a nest with a 3 foot tunnel has been noted) in an earth bank. The nest building begins with both birds flying into a suitable mud wall until an indentation is made where they can find a perch hold. They subsequently perch and continue digging the nest with their bills. Nest tunnels in a haystack have also been recorded.] A single clutch of 4-7 round white eggs is typical. The eggs take 20–22 days to hatch while the chicks fledge in 19 days.
21. ORIENTAL DARTER South Asian ( Pakistan )
The Black Bulbul (Hypsipetes leucocephalus), also known as the Himalayan Black Bulbul, is a member of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is found in southern Asia from India east , Pakistan to southern China. It is the type species of the genus Hypsipetes, which was established by Nicholas Aylward Vigors in the early 1830. There are a number of subspecies across this large range, mostly varying in the shade of the body plumage (ranging from grey to black), and some also occur in white-headed morphs (as also suggested by its specific name leucocephalus, literally “white head”). The legs and bill are always rich orange-red.
Taxonomy and systematics::
The taxonomy is complex with this and several other currently recognized species earlier treated as subspecies of Hypsipetes madagascariensis. Within Asia, H. ganeesa has often been listed as a subspecies of H. leucocephalus, but is increasingly treated as a separate species restricted to the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, the Square-tailed Black Bulbul. The nominate race leucocephalus (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) is found north and east of the Himalayas in south eastern China, Myanmar and Indochina. The race psaroides Vigors, 1831 is found along the Himalayas from Afghanistan (Kunar Valley), through, Pakistan and India (Arunachal Pradesh) into northwestern Myanmar. Race sinensis (La Touche, 1922) is found in China, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. Race nigrescens Stuart Baker, 1917 is described from Assam, Manipur, Myanmar (Chin Hills). Several other subspecies have been proposed including stresemanni, ambiens, concolor (may include impar), leucothorax, nigerrimus and perniger. Of all the races of this bulbul, stresemanni, leucothorax and leucocephalus have white heads, while all the others are black-headed. One of the white-headed races of this bulbul has been reported from Namdapha National Park in Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India in 2009. The reproductive isolation mechanisms such as vocalization and geographic distributions of these populations still remain to be studied.
The Black Bulbul is 24–25 cm in length, with a long tail. The body plumage ranges from slate grey to shimmering black, depending on the race. The beak, legs, and feet are all red and the head has a black fluffy crest. Sexes are similar in plumage, but young birds lack the crest, have whitish underparts with a grey breast band, and have a brown tint to the upperparts.
This bird is found in broad-leaved forests, cultivation and gardens. It builds its nest in a tree or bush; two to four eggs is a typical clutch.
Black Bulbuls feed mainly on seeds and insects, and they are often seen in small groups, either roosting or flying about in search of food. They are particularly fond of berries. They can be quite noisy, making various loud cheeping or miao calls.
23. LITTLE BITTERN ( Migrates to Pakistan )
The Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) is a wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, native to the Old World, breeding in Africa, central and southern Europe, western and southern Asia, and Madagascar. Birds from temperate regions in Europe and western Asia are migratory, wintering in Africa and further south in Asia, while those nesting in the tropics are sedentary. It is rare north of its breeding range.
It is a very small bittern; at 27–36 cm in length, 40–58 cm wingspan and 60-150 g weight. The smallest specimens are perhaps the smallest herons on earth. It has a short neck, longish bill and buff underparts. The male’s back and crown are black, and the wings are black with a large white patch on each wing. The female has a browner back and a buff-brown wing patch.
24. SEE SEE PATRIDGE
The See-see Partridge, Ammoperdix griseogularis, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. This partridge has its main native range from southeast Turkey through Syria and Iraq east to Iran and Pakistan. It is closely related and similar to its counterpart in Egypt and Arabia, the Sand Partridge, Ammoperdix heyi. This 22-25 cm bird is a resident breeder in dry, open and often hilly country. It nests in a scantily lined ground scrape laying 8-16 eggs. The See-see Partridge takes a wide variety of seeds and some insect food. See-see Partridge is a rotund bird, mainly sandy-brown with wavy white and brown flank stripes. The male has a grey head with a black stripe through the eye and a white cheek patch. The neck sides are speckled with white. The head pattern is the best distinction from Sand Partridge. The female is a very washed-out version of the male, and is more difficult to distinguish from its relative due to the weak head pattern. When disturbed, See-see Partridge prefers to run rather than fly, but if necessary it flies a short distance on rounded wings. The song is a whistled hwit-hwit-hwit.
25. HIMALAYAN SNOW COCK An endangered specie of Pakistan
The Himalayan Snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis) is a snowcock in the pheasant family Phasianidae found across the Himalayan ranges and parts of the adjoining Pamir range of Asia. It is found on alpine pastures and on steep rocky cliffs where they will dive down the hill slopes to escape. It overlaps with the slightly smaller Tibetan Snowcock in parts of its wide range.
Distribution and status::
Himalayan Snowcock frequents alpine pastures and steep ridges of mountains of Central and South Asia above the treeline and near the snowline. In the Himalayas, it is found between 4000 to 5000 m elevation in summer, descending to 2400 m during severe winters. Since the Himalayan Snowcock has a large distribution range and no visible declines in population, it has been considered a species of “least concern” by the IUCN. In 1961 the similarity of the Himalayan landscape to the Nevada region was noted and the Himalayan Snowcock was considered as a good game bird for introduction by the Nevada Fish and Game Commission. The Commission then approached the President of Pakistan for some birds. These were wild trapped in Hunza and early shipments faced heavy losses after which birds were locally reared at Mason Valley game farm and over a 15 year period (1965–1979) more than 2000 birds were released into the wild. A wild population more than 200 to 500 birds has established itself in the Ruby Mountains, where they forage above the treeline.
26. THE HIMALAYAN MONAL North Pakistan
The Himalayan Monal secures a distinct position among pheasants due to its prominent build, brilliant plumage and strong association with local folklore. Its natural range spreads from eastern Afghanistan through the Himalayas including Kashmir region of Northern Pakistan, India (states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh), Nepal, southern Tibet and Bhutan. There is also a report of its occurrence in Burma. It occupies upper temperate oak-conifer forests interspersed with open grassy slopes, cliffs and alpine meadows between 2400 – 4500m, mostly concentrating in a narrow belt of 2700 – 3700m. They seem to exhibit clear and fluctuating altitudinal migration reaching as low as 2000m in winter. They, however, show tolerance to snow and have been observed to dig through snow for roots, tubers and other plant parts, and invertebrates. Seen in pairs during the breeding season (April to August), they form large coveys and involve in communal roosting during the winter. The population of this species in most of its range is threatened due to poaching and other anthropogenic factors. The male monal has been under heavy hunting pressure for its crest feather, which was used for ornamental hats of Himachal men, until 1982 when legal hunting was banned in the state.
27. BLACK FRANCOLIN PHEASENT FROM KASHMIR , PAKISTAN
The Black Francolin, Francolinus francolinus, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. It is one of the few francolins to have a range outside Africa. It is a resident breeder from Kashmir, Cyprus and south-eastern Turkey eastwards through Iran to southwest Turkmenistan and northeast India. Its range was formerly more extensive, but over-hunting has reduced its distribution and numbers. There have been a number of introductions, but most have failed to take root although some populations still persist in the USA and elsewhere. This bird is found in scrubby habitats with plenty of low cover and cultivation. It nests in a bare ground scrape laying 8-18 white-spotted pale brown/greenish eggs. Black Francolin take a wide variety of plant and insect food. The Grey Francolin-sized male is mainly black, with white spotting on the back and flanks. It has a chestnut neck collar, white cheek patches and brown wings. The legs are red. The female is mainly brown, but has a chestnut hind neck. The extent of the white spotting on the flanks varies substantially across the species’ range and the depth of colour of the females similarly varies. This is a very unobstrusive species, best seen in spring when the male sings a mechanical kik-kik-kik from a mound. The male’s territorial/advertising call is a loud and grating kwee-kweeeee-kwee. It has a Pheasant’s explosive flight, but prefers to creep away unseen. The easiest place to see this bird is on and around Paphos International Airport in Cyprus, the only country with a recovering population. However, this is also a military base, so people creeping around the perimeter with telescopes and binoculars may attract interest from the police.
28. CRESTED KINGFISHER Himalaya Range Pakistan
The Crested Kingfisher Megaceryle lugubris is resident of the Himalayas and foothills of North East India,Pakistan, Bangladesh, northern Indochina, and south and east China. It is a very large (41 cm) black and white kingfisher with evenly barred wings and tail. It lacks a supercilium and has a spotted breast, which is sometimes mixed with rufous. This bird is mainly found in mountain rivers and larger rivers in foothills.
29. THE BARN OWL
The Barn Owl is a pale, long-winged, long-legged owl with a short squarish tail. Depending on subspecies, it measures about 25–45 cm (9.8–18 in) in overall length, with a wingspan of some 75–110 cm (30–43 in). Tail shape is a way of distinguishing the Barn Owl from true owls when seen in flight, as are the wavering motions and the open dangling feathered legs. The light face with its heart shape and the black eyes give the flying bird an odd and startling appearance, like a flat mask with oversized oblique black eyeslits, the ridge of feathers above the bill somewhat resembling a nose. Its head and upperparts are a mixture of buff and grey (especially on the forehead and back) feathers in most subspecies. Some are purer, richer brown instead, and all have fine black-and-white speckles except on the remiges and rectrices, which are light brown with darker bands. The heart-shaped face is usually bright white, but in some subspecies it is browner. The underparts (including the tarsometatarsus feathers) vary from white to reddish buff among the subspecies, and are either mostly unpatterned or bear a varying amount of tiny blackish-brown speckles. It was found that at least in the continental European populations, females with more spotting are healthier on average. This does not hold true for European males by contrast, where the spotting varies according to subspecies. The bill varies from pale horn to dark buff, corresponding to the general plumage hue. The iris is blackish brown. The toes, as the bill, vary in color; their color ranges from pinkish to dark pinkish-grey. The talons are black. On average, within any one population males tend to be less spotted on the underside than females. The latter are also larger, as is common for owls. A strong female T. alba of a large subspecies may weigh over 550 g (19.4 oz), while males are typically about 10% lighter. Nestlings are covered in white down all over, but the heart-shaped facial disk is visible soon after hatching. Contrary to popular belief, it does not hoot (such calls are made by typical owls, like the Tawny Owl or other Strix). It instead produces the characteristic shree scream, ear-shattering at close range. Males in courtship give a shrill twitter. It can hiss like a snake to scare away intruders, and when captured or cornered, it throws itself on its back and flails with sharp-taloned feet, making for an effective defense. Also given in such situations is a rasp and a clicking snap, produced by the bill or possibly the tongue. It is most recognizable by its “mask-like” face.
30. THE LAUGHING DOVE
The Laughing Dove (Stigmatopelia senegalensis) is a small pigeon which is a resident breeding bird in the tropics in Africa south of the Sahara, the Middle East and southern Asia east to Pakistan and India. In India it is also known as the Little Brown Dove. Probably as the result of stowaways from Africa or India, the bird is also found in a localised area of Western Australia — in and around Perth and Fremantle. It is a common and widespread species in scrub, dry farmland and habitation over a good deal of its range, often becoming very tame. This species builds a stick nest in a tree and lays two white eggs. Its flight is quick, with the regular beats and an occasional sharp flick of the wings which are characteristic of pigeons in general. Eating rice in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Sonogram of call (South India)Laughing Dove is a long-tailed, slim pigeon, typically 25 centimetres (10 inches) in length. Its back, wings and tail are reddish-brown with blue-grey in the wings. In flight, the underwings are rich chestnut. The head and underparts are pinkish, shading to whitish on the lower abdomen. There is black spotting on the throat. The legs are red. The chuckling call is a low oo-took-took-oo-roo, with the emphasis on the took-took. Occasionally a nasal scream at one-second intervals is produced in flight or when landing. Sexes are similar, but juveniles are more rufous than adults, and have reduced throat spotting. Laughing Doves eat grass, seeds, grains, other vegetation and small insects. They are fairly terrestrial, foraging on the ground in grasslands and cultivation. They are not particularly gregarious, and are usually alone, or in pairs!
The Laggar Falcon (Falco jugger) is a mid-sized bird of prey which occurs in the Indian subcontinent from extreme south-east Iran, south-east Afghanistan, Pakistan, through India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and north-west Myanmar. It resembles the Lanner Falcon but is darker overall, and has blackish “trousers” (tibiotarsus feathers). Fledglings have an almost entirely dark underside, and first-year subadult birds still retain much dark on the belly. This species belongs to a close-knit complex of falcons known as hierofalcons. In this group, there is ample evidence for rampant hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting which confounds analyses of DNA sequence data to a massive extent; molecular studies with small sample sizes can simply not be expected to yield reliable conclusions in the entire hierofalcon group. The radiation of the entire living diversity of hierofalcons seems to have taken place in the Eemian interglacial at the start of the Late Pleistocene, a mere 130,000-115,000 years ago; the Laggar Falcon represents a lineage that arrived at its present range out of eastern Africa by way of the Arabian Peninsula which during that time had a more humid climate than today. Laggar Falcons used to be the most common falcons in the region, but numbers have declined markedly in recent times and today it is probably nowhere a common species anymore. The main threats are the intensification of pesticide use in the region and use as a decoy to trap large falcons.
The Common Cuckoo is a dove-sized bird, 32–34 centimetres (13–13 in) long (tail 13–15 cm) and wingspan 55–60 cm. It is greyish with a slender body and long tail and could be mistaken as a falcon in flight. There is also a rufous colour phase which occurs occasionally in adult females but more often in juveniles. The cuckoo family gets its common name and genus name by onomatopoeia for the call of the male Common Cuckoo, usually given from an open perch, goo-ko. During the breeding season the male typically gives this call with intervals of 1–1.5 seconds, in groups of 10–20 with a rest of a few seconds between groups. The female has a loud bubbling call.
Distribution and habitat::
A bird of open land. The cuckoo is a widespread summer migrant to Europe and Asia, and winters in Africa.
33. The Hill Pigeon
The Hill Pigeon or Eastern Rock Dove or Turkestan Hill Dove Columba rupestris is a species of bird in the Columbidae family. Hill Pigeon is a stout bodied pigeon, very similar in size and general appearance to the Rock Pigeon, but mainly differentiated by its tail pattern which consist of a broad white tail-band across the black tail. Other differences include a paler mantle and upper wings and a white patch on the back. In flight, the tail pattern is similar to the Snow Pigeon, but lacks the contrast between the head and neck in that species. It is found in China, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Kazakhstan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. This pigeon is comparatively restricted in range of Pakistan to the furthest northern inner valleys of the Karakoram, Hindu Kush and Pamirs. In Pakistan it occurs in northern Chitral particularly in the western part bordering Nuristan in Afghanistan, further east in valleys of Gilgit in Yasin and Hunza and Karakoram ranges in Baltistan from about 2000 meters in winter up to 5500 meters during summer months. Though the overall population is decreasing, since the rate of decrease is not alarming and the bird is widely distributed and abundant, it is classified as Least Concern by IUCN. This species frequents open rugged country from 1,500 to 6,100 meters. Closely related to Rock Pigeon but more commonly found at higher altitudes. 2 A gregarious species throughout the year, They feed in flocks in the terraced cultivated fields. They often mix with flocks of Rock Pigeons. They are very tame and are often found near human settlements, camps and pilgrimage routes. In Tajikistan it has been recorded as starting to nest as early as February with many young just fledging as late as September in northeastern Tibet. The males have a bowing display similar to that of the Rock Pigeon and nothing distinctive seems to have been recorded elsewhere about the display of this pigeon which suggests that display and courtship is similar. They nest in dense colonies on cliffs, gorges and rocky outcrops. In Tibet, the nests are often placed houses, both inhabited and empty or in holes in the wall. 4 Nest consists of a platform of twigs or plant stem in which generally two eggs are laid. They may raise two brood in a year.
34. THE FULVOUS WOODPECKER
The Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos macei) is a species of bird in the Picidae family. It is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam.
A medium-sized, pied woodpecker. Upperparts black, heavily barred white. Undertail red, breast und belly buffwith light flank barring and slight side streaking. Withish cheeks partly bordered by black line. Crown red in male with orange forehead, black in female.
35. THE INDIAN PITTA
The Indian Pitta, Pitta brachyura, is a medium-sized passerine bird. It breeds mainly in the sub-Himalayas and winters in Pakistan ,southern India and Sri Lanka. These birds are found in thick undergrowth and are often more easily detected by their calls. They however often crash into houses during the migratory season and their brilliant colouration makes them an object of curiosity and are often covered in newspaper stories. The Indian Pitta is a small stubby-tailed bird that is mostly seen on the floor of forests or under dense undergrowth, foraging on insects in leaf litter. It has long, strong legs, a very short tail and stout bill, with a buff coloured crown stripe, black coronal stripes, a thick black eye stripe and white throat and neck. The upperparts are green, with a blue tail, the underparts buff, with bright red on the lower belly and vent. The bird normally hops on the ground to forage and has been known to get trapped in ground traps meant for small mammals. They roost in trees. It is more often heard than seen and has a distinctive loud two-note whistle wheeet-tieu or wieet-pyou or sometimes, a triple note hh-wit-wiyu. They have a habit of calling once or twice, often with neighbouring individuals joining in, at dawn or dusk leading to their common name of “Six-O-Clock” bird in Tamil. When calling the head is thrown back and the bill is pointed upwards. Pittas are among the few Old World suboscine birds. The Indian Pitta is the basal member of a distinct clade that includes many of the Oriental species.
36. THE HOUBARA BUSTARD